Poland

Category: Resorts » International » Europe » Poland | Author: biker | Views: 3873 | 3-05-2012, 01:23
Poland

Official name: Republic of Poland;

Сapital of Poland: Warsaw;

Area of Poland : 322,577 square kilometers;

Geographical Location of Poland: Eastern Europe;

Climate: temperate, transitional between maritime and continental;

Population of Poland: 38.7 million people;

The biggest cities in Poland: Warsaw, Krakow, Lodz, Wroclaw, Poznan, Gdansk;

Ethnic groups: Poles - 98.5%, Ukrainians - 0.6%, Germans - 0.5%, other - 0.4%;

Official language of Poland: Polish;

Religion in Poland : Roman Catholic 90.7%,  Orthodox-1.4%, other- 7.9%;

Currency of Poland: Polish zloty (PLN, code 4217);

Internet domain: .pl;

Telephone code: +48;

Local Time: UTC +1.

 

 

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Poland

Flag of Poland

Poland

Map of Poland 

Poland

Coat of arms of Poland 

 

Information about Poland

Poland is situated in Eastern Europe and one of the most influential European countries. The population of the country is about 39 million, and in size it can be compared with Italy and Germany. Poland has been a member of the EU since May, 2004. Poland is a country with rich and interesting history, unique cultural heritage and also wonderful pristine nature.

 

In Poland there are many attractions which are worldwide famous and you should visit them. Most of them are located in large cities such as Krakow, Warsaw, Czestochowa, Gdansk, and others.

 

Poland Poland Poland

 

The geographical position of Poland 

Poland is situated in Eastern Europe. It borders with Germany, Belarus, Lithuania, Czech Republic, Slovakia, Ukraine and Russia. In the North it is washed by the Baltic Sea.
There is Baltic Ridge Hill and coastal lowlands with many glacial lakes in the North, the Sudeten Mountains are located in the southwest, and the South is covered with the Carpathian Mountains with the Tatra, Bieszczady and Beskid. The highest point in Poland is Rysy (2499 m.), which is located in the Tatra Mountains. There are a lot of rivers, lakes and forests in the Central part.

Photos of Poland 

Poland Poland Poland
Poland Poland Poland

 

The climate of Poland

The climate in Poland is temperate, the transition from maritime to continental. The average falls on the plain land is to 500 - 600 mm. a year, but in the mountains more than 1800 mm. a year. The climate on the Baltic coast depends on the air masses and is therefore more volatile. The climate is becoming warmer and more humid in the West. The range of average temperatures ranging from 6° C (in the north-east) and to 8° C (in the south-west).

 

Flora and fauna of Poland 

28% of Polish territory is covered by forests. These are mainly pine, oak, ash and birch. The largest forests are Bialowieza, Kampinoskuyu, Noteski and Tucholski forests.
Deciduous and mixed forests like dry climate, and are characterized by richness of trees, shrubs and grasses. On the banks of rivers and lakes grow forests of alder, poplar, and elm trees, and wetlands of the country are covered with forests of alder and willow thickets, which are very picturesque.
On the tops of the mountains coniferous forest of dwarf pines and spruces are spreading and the south-east of Poland is dominated by steppe vegetation.
Polish fauna is mostly similar to European and West Siberian forests. List of vertebrates includes nearly 400 species and more than 200 species of birds. The most impressive representative of fauna is the European bisons in Bialowieza, Knyazhinskiy and Boreskov virgin forests, as well as in the Bieszczady. The country gives big efforts to protect this magnificent animal. European bison, as well as the small Polish horse, called "Tarpan", can be found only in Poland.
Polish fauna is quite rich in different kinds of animals: deer, roe deer, hares, foxes, spotted deer, wild boars, martens and badgers. There are plenty of  beavers. Moose belongs to the biggest animals in the country and lives mainly in Bagno Bebrzhanskie swamp. Among the very rare species - the wolf and lynx.  Tatras are inhabited by nimble gazelles and small marmots. In the mountain forests you can also find brown bears and wild cats.
The area of lakes is nestle place to many species of ducks, swans and wild geese. And there are many species of fish, including the peak, perch, eel in rivers and lakes. In some lakes and rivers you can find also cancers.


Poland Poland Poland
Poland Poland Poland
Poland Poland Poland
Poland Poland Poland

 

History of Poland 

The state of Poland was established by the Slavic tribes near the Vistula River (in 10th century) and some time later their kingdom became the most influential in the region. But later there were civil wars in the country during two centuries. Only in 1320 the Polish Kingdom was restored and Krakow became its capital. Poland turned into a granary of Europe and the mighty republic with strong kings and powerful parliament.
For many centuries, Poland was one of the most powerful states in Europe. But long-term war was exhausting the country and as a result it was destroyed in XVIII century. Poland lost its independence and was partitioned between Russia, Austria-Hungary and Prussia. Only in 1918 Polish state was rebuilt, and the current borders of Poland were determined after World War II.

Poland Poland Poland

 

Culture of Poland 

Poland has brought big contribution to the World literary culture. In the territory of Poland the archeologists found the writings which date back to the 15th century, but they were in Latin. The Topics of books were mainly religious. Nicholas Ray (1505 - 1569) was one of the first authors who wrote only in Polish, he is famous for its wonderful poetry and prose.

The literature of Poland in 18th century was much influenced by the culture of Western Europe. To the great writers of that time belongs the first woman writer Elzbita Druzbaka. Roman period in the beginning of 19th century gave many great poets and the most famous among them is Adam Miskevich. Most of his works were written during his exile in Russia, including the great national epic "Pan Tadeusz" (1834).

Between the First and Second World Wars there were a lot of good authors. The most talented poets were Julian Tuwim and Casimir Verzinsky and novelists, Maria Dabrowska and Ian Parandowski. The period of communist regime after the World War II is characterized by the strictest censorship in literature.
Poland Poland Poland
Poland Poland Poland
Poland Poland Poland
Where to go in Poland
Krakow. It is rich in many archeological and historical monuments, among them- medieval churches - Church of St. Adalbert, St. Mary's Church, Church of St. Andrzej. You can also enjoy the picturesque view from the Royal Castle, which is located on the hill above the main river of Poland - Wisla. Tourists should definitely go to square Rynek Gluvny in Krakow; this market has been working for about 800 years. Krakow is also famous for its universities; one can distinguish the Jagiellonian, which has been training students since the XIV century. Also, foreign tourists in Krakow will be interested in visiting Kazimierz - the Jewish "city within a city". There are a large number of monuments of Jewish culture, and among them is the largest synagogue in Poland.

Warsaw – the capital of Poland and the center of mass tourism. The city is famous for its parks, for example, 700 years old Lazienki Park is very famous. In the park there are numerous historical and cultural landmarks including Lazienki Palace, it is also often called the "Palace on the Water". The Polish capital has been changed a lot after its destruction during the Second World War and now everywhere in the city you can see the buildings of the Soviet type. Most attractions are located on the left part of Poland. But you should visit the most popular part of this wonderful country - Prague, which is located on the right bank. Poland`s heart is of Stare Miasto, which means "Old City". Here you can take pictures with the monuments of history and admire the amazing architecture. Be sure to visit one of the 43 museums which located in Warsaw, namely, the largest and most popular museum - the National Museum. There you will see artifacts   of Greek, Roman and Egyptian cultures, as well as European and Polish art.

Poznan - Wielkopolska region's historic capital, more than thousand years ago the Polish state was created there. Nowadays Poznan is one of the most important industrial, cultural, scientific and tourist centers. Here you can visit the island with Tume churches of XIII - XV centuries, Old Town with the Town Hall, Market and buildings of XVI - XIX centuries. In Poznan there is also a water park "Malta" and sports-recreational center "Malta-ski".

Lodz – it is the second largest city in Poland. Big textile factory (19 century), Workers' quarters, palaces and beautiful parks - all of this together is an architectural largest complex in the style of "modern» in Poland. Also you should visit Europe's largest Jewish cemetery (40 square meters. km.), Museum of Art, the White factory Ludwik Geiler, Museum of History of Lodz, Poznan Palace, the Cathedral of St. Kostka, industrial complex and many other historical and architectural monuments .

Wroclaw is located in the southwestern part of Poland. For a long time the city was under the control of other countries (the Czech lands, Poland, Austria-Hungary, Prussia and Germany). Today we can see traces of that time in urban buildings and cemeteries, where the Roman Catholics, Protestants and Jews were buried together. It is worth visiting cathedrals and churches of XII - XV centuries in the oldest part of town called Ostrow Tumski. In the center of the city there is Market and Town Hall. The market is surrounded by old stone houses and churches.

Lublin - is a little far from main tourist routes but it is also worth visiting. Tourists will be impressed by old winding streets, medieval fortifications, the chapel of the Holy Trinity (1418) and Lublin Castle (XIII-XIX cc.), which nowadays is used as the museum. Also visit the Catholic University (the oldest private university in Poland), the historical museum at the gates of Krakow (XIV c.), take a walk to the old city and admire the Baroque Cathedral of Lublin (1596), the City Hall (XIV-XVIII c.), Trinity Tower (XIX c.) with a panorama of Lublin.

Poland Poland Poland

 

What to See in Poland

First of all, you should visit the most valuable monuments, urban complexes, glaciers and caves, national parks and shrines, which are under protection of UNESCO. In Poland, there are 8 big landmarks:

  1. Warsaw Old Town - recovered from the ruins after World War II. The reconstruction was performed by the old plans, drawings and descriptions. As a result the new architectural complex is more like a medieval original, than the previous one.
  2. Royal Cracow - the largest in the country monument of history and culture. If the Wawel Castle in Krakow can be compared with the soul of Poland, so the old town is called the heart of Krakow. In addition, the ancient settlement of craftsmen Stradom and Kazimierz (the former city of the Polish Jews) are also included the list of UNESCO.
  3. Wieliczka Salt Mine - an underground city, which has 7 floors down. Tourists can visit 20 cameras which are decorated with salt sculptures and different rooms with galleries and lakes. At the bottom there is a constant temperature of +14 C. Banquets and balls are often held at the depth of hundred-meter.
  4. Medieval Torun - It has many buildings which attract attention, for example, the House under the Star (1697), which has the unusual architectural style. It is also used as a Museum of Far East Art. The inn "Under the Smart apron" - a stone house has been attacking tourists since 1700 to nowadays. In one of the Gothic Torun buildings of the famous astronomer Nicolaus Copernicus was born.
  5. Crusader castle in Malbork – the red brick castle built 700 years old and surrounded by rounded turret defenses. In the past the castle was a city and centre of the Teutonic religious order. Meeting and concerts are holding in its halls, but the main thing is that the visitor has a unique opportunity to see the real knight's castle, which has not visible changed since ancient time.
  6. The city-fortress of Zamosc - this unique city was built in the open field, at the order of Jan Zamoyski, the right hand of King Stefan Batory, who decided to make his residence there. Yang asked the famous Italian architect Morando to construct this fortress and he coped well with this task. The fortress was not needed in 1866. The massive walls turned to urban gardens. Although some constructions of the castle are still preserved: Koets, New and Old Lviv gates, high walls and field fortifications. Today, tourists are invited to watch the vaulted galleries of stone houses with rich ornaments of plants and animals. Sapphire Gallery and the "Under an Angel" were performed in the Oriental style. Byzantine church and monastery of Redeemer impress with their unique architecture. Residence Zamoyski, which was built by Morando, has become an example for the design of other buildings. The façade, one more example of Morando style, has been perfectly preserved. In the center of the city the nice market (100 by 100 metres) is located, where meet eight streets. There is also a Renaissance town hall with high slender tower.
  7. Auschwitz-Birkenau - the largest Nazi concentration camp. It was kept untouchable in order people not to forget the committed crimes against humanity.
  8. Bialowieza National Park - located on the border of two countries: Poland and Belarus. It is the largest in Central Europe forest. The largest animal in Europe, and  a symbol of the reserve bison lives here.
Poland Poland Poland
Poland Poland Poland

 

Football Championship "UEFA EURO 2012"


Poland and Ukraine from 08.06.2011 to 01.07.2012 are holding the largest European soccer championship "UEFA Euro 2012". This prestigious tournament is held in one of the  European country - once in 4 years.
Despite the fact that this tournament is held among the European football teams - it is considered the world-class championship, because it is watched in all over the World.
If you enjoy football and are planning to visit Poland in the period of the championship - we recommend you to visit at least one-football game of the championship.

The matches of "Euro 2012" in Poland are holding in the following cities: Warsaw ("National Stadium"), Gdansk (football stadium "Arena PGE"), Wroclaw (City stadium), Poznan (Municipal Stadium).

Prices for accommodation in Poland are relatively  small, so the visiting of EURO 2012 championshp will not take much money. But keep in mind that in this country the price of food is at the  European level, so take extra money for a case.
People who do not live in Europe, are required to take Schengen visa. But at the period of the football championship in Poland - the process of applying for visa is going to be simplified and accelerated.
Since the championship "Euro 2012" is the most prestigious football tournament of the world-class, visiting at least one match - you will be satisfied.

 

What to do in Poland

  • Tours. For tourists will be interesting to visit such cities as Warsaw, Krakow, Poznan, Lodz, Wroclaw, Gdansk and others. Be sure to visit the salt mine "Wieliczka", one of the most famous landmarks in Poland. Also there are a large number of natural monuments in Poland, among them- "Bialowieza Forest", Tatra Mountains, Mazury Lake District National Park and caves.
  • Ski resorts. Poland has good conditions for ski tourism. Mountains chain Krkonose, Beskid and Tatra in the south and south-west of the country can offer you dozens kilometers of trails, well-equipped elevators and congresses. The tourism infrastructure is there highly developed.
    1. Krkonose - a mountain range which belongs to the Sudetes. There are such centers of skiing as Szklarska, Poreba and Karpacz there.

      Shklyarskry Poręba can offer the most modern trails with different levels. They are installed with new lifts and improved methods of preparation and maintenance of trails. The “Ski Arena” has five ski slopes with a ski lift. "The Wall" (2 km.) is the most difficult ski slope, ski competitions of the world class are held here.

      Another ski center is Karpacz, located at the foot of the mountain Snowballs. It has 7 lifts and seven trails of various levels, where you can ski even at night because of the good light.

    2. Beskid is the northern boundary of the Carpathians. The relief is mainly characterized by gentle slopes. Top ski resorts in the area are Szczyrk and Krynica.

      Szczyrk located near Krakow at the foot of two mountains -  Skshichne and Klimczok. The resort has a large number of ski facilities and slopes, the quality of them are not worse than in some well-known alpine centers. There are 31platforms there, and the length of trails is 50 km.

      Krynica is one of the best known Polish resorts. It is located in the Western Carpathians. There are two ski centers there - the Slovenes with the Charney and Jaworzhyna. In the complex of Slovenes and Charney there are 7 ski lifts and 11 ski trails of different levels. This ski resort is very popular with family skiers. It has also excellent infrastructure - bars, restaurants, service, rental of equipment, qualified instructors.

      Jaworzhyna
      occupies the eastern and southern slopes of Mount Yavorzhyna Krynica (1114 m). The main attraction of this set is hanging gondola road leading to the top of the mountain. Also, there are 4 lifts and 4 pistes.
    3. Tatra Mountains - the highest mountain range in the Carpathians in Poland. Ski resorts in the area are Zakopane and Szczawnica.

      Zakopane is one of the oldest ski resorts in Poland; the first track was built in the early XX century. It can offer entertainment to every taste: downhill skiing, snowboarding, skiing, hiking, ice skating, sleigh rides, snowmobiles, etc. And when you get hungry or tired there are a lot of restaurants, bars and cafes at your disposal.

      Szczawnica - there is small Pieniny mountain range in the East of Szczawnica, where there are two large ski resorts on the slopes of the mountains -Yavorka and Dubrasht se. In addition, on the slopes of Mount Palenitsa bordering Szczawnica, stretches so-called gravitational Ryna at which you can descend on special trolleys.
  • Health tourism. Poland is famous with its health resorts, where you can treat rheumatism, problems with the musculoskeletal system, breathing, blood circulation and digestive tract. They can help you also with endocrine problems, gynecological problems, skin diseases, metabolic, and urinary problems. There are about 50 health canters there. The most popular health resorts: balneoclimatic - Krynica, Szczawnica, Zhegestuv, Rabka, mud-bath - Tseplitse, Ciechocinek, Busko Zdrój Polchin Zdroj, spa - Lądek Zdrój Szczawno Zdrój Duszniki Zdroj, Seraduv, Iwonicz; climate - Sopot, Kolobrzeg.
  • Beach vacation. Despite the fact that Poland is not famous among tourists as a beach destination, but it has 500 km. Baltic coast line with good beaches. The beach rest here is very healthy: first, the effect of sunlight in this area is not so much as on the southern resorts so does not damage skin, and secondly the sea air, saturated with iodine, has a valuable therapeutic properties, finally these beaches are good for those who suffer from respiratory diseases. So visit such resorts as Kolobrzeg and Świnoujście.
    Nowadays in the modern Polish resorts the level of comfort and service is the same as in Europe. The main sea resorts in Poland - Sopot Kolobrzeg, Yastzhembya Gura, Swinoujscie, Ustka, Krynica Morska. The most popular among them is the Sopot, sometimes called "The pearl of the Baltic".
  • Activities at the lakes. In Poland there are over 9000 lakes. The most popular is Mazury Lake District. It is located on the north-east of the country and became known as "green lungs of Poland". Shnyardvy and Mamry - are the largest lakes with picturesque landscapes. They are surrounded by huge forests, parks and nature reserves. In the Mazury Lake District you can enjoy fishing, boating, surfing, sailing, horseback riding, mountain biking, hiking, etc. There are a lot of water sports centers and resorts there, which work not only in summer, but also in autumn and winter.
  • Eco-tourism. Poland can boast beautiful and unspoit nature. On its territory there are 22 national parks and 122 landscape parks, nature reserves and thousands of natural landmarks, among them- Tatras in the South, the Sudetenland in the South-West, Bieszczady and Beskid in the South-East, as well as rocky limestone mountains of Pieniny. The biggest forests of Europe are also located here - Bialowieza push, Ojców National Park and Pieniny park. In the North there are a big number of lakes which are located among the picturesque hills and forests – the most beautiful is the Masurian Lake District.

 

Poland Poland Poland

 

Cuisine of Poland


 

  • Bread is traditional Polish food. There is also a holiday in Poland which is called Dozynki - a celebration of the last day of the harvest, when all come together to sing songs, dance, and to taste the first bread, which was made from the summer harvest.
  • The main dish in Polish cuisine is Obiad. Normal Obiad consists of soup, main course and dessert. The meal usually begins with soup, borsch with dumplings or vegetable summer soup, which is called Zurek or Hlodnik. It consists of chopped vegetables in sour milk, and usually is prepared only in summer. There are also other kinds of soups such as mushroom soup and kapusnyak. Fish lovers should like dish of smoked salmon, eel and herring in various forms. To the traditional polish dishes belong also brawn and sausages.
  • Surowka - this Polish salad is made of white and red cabbage and sliced  carrots, leeks and apples.  Salad mizeria is also delicious and easy in making (chopped cucumbers in sour milk).
  • Mostly all polish dishes include meat. Pork meat is the most popular in Poland.  Also dishes from chicken or duck with baked apples are very favourite among Poles. Chicken filled with rye bread, eggs, butter, spices and spring parsley, and roasted in the oven. The duck rubbed with seasonings, filled with apples and roasted in the oven.
  • The Polish cuisine is rich in fish dishes: eels, pikes, sturgeon, perch, sea fish and many others. It can be fried it, hovered and cooked, serving with different types of sauces and seasonings. Especially popular dishes from the carp. Baked Carp is a traditional Christmas dish. 
  • Dessert consists of cake or ice cream. Szarlotka - pie apples, cheesecake (sernik) and rolls of the poppy (makowiec). Also delicious puff pies, apple pies, donuts and cream cakes.

 

Poland Poland Poland
Poland Poland Poland

 

Что купить в Польше 

Earlier in the Polish market you was able to buy only pickles, vodka or some electrical equipment but with the development of big hypermarkets the situation has changed much. There are also many well-known brand shops there, but the discount or sale does not often work there. So for tourist it is not a problem to find good souvenirs in Poland. Here are some examples:

  • Alcohol.
    Vodka - a popular purchase for foreign tourists. It is not worse than in neighboring countries, and sold in different packages with different flavors and degrees of purification. The most famous is an herbal tincture Goldwasser from Gdansk; it contains flakes of 22-karat gold. And if you buy good polish beer for friends they will appreciate it.
  • Amber.
    Amber can be found on the beaches of the Baltic coast. It is a white or dark orange material from which the jewelry of all types and sizes is made.
  • Antiques and art objects.
    Poland has a big choice of different art objects which you can buy in tourist cities. If you can not decide what to buy so take polish posters, which have a big value. But don`t spend much time in searching of cheap art objects in Poland, the chances to get it are very low. If you bought something that dates until May 9, 1945, you  have to get an export license for the Polish custom officers.
    What a Journey without a gift for yourself and loved ones? From this beautiful country you will be able to bring the ceramic, glass and woven products, as well as different embroidery.
  • Books.
    Albums you can buy as a souvenir at each bookstore.
  • Goods from markets.
    Mostly each town in Poland is proud of its markets. If you want to go shopping, then we advise you to go to Gdansk and Wroclaw. These cities have the biggest markets. There is also big Russian market, which is situated at the stadium.
Poland Poland Poland
Poland Poland Poland

 

Interesting Facts about Poland 

  1. The symbol of Poland is White tail of eagle. According to the legend, Lech, the ancestor of all Poles, established the capital on the place where there was a nest of eagle and named it Gniezno. When he saw a white eagle flying, Lech was impressed by its beauty and grace;
  2. The most  populated city in Poland is its capital city - Warsaw. More than 2.5 million people live there;
  3. The most popular sport of this beautiful country is football;
  4. Forests occupy one-third of the territory of Poland, and its agriculture sector - 50% of the territory;
  5. It is fact that agriculture takes half of the country, but you can be surprised with such fact:  Some Polish farmers use the most modern equipment for their farming, but at the same time the neighboring farmers plow the soil only with horse. Of course you can logically explain it with the lack of money, but it is not the reason-   some villagers love to work with own hands, it is kind of their hobby. So in such way the Poles enjoy and work at the same time!;
  6. The most popular dogs` name is "Burek", which translates as "brown-gray color." Well, the Poles are not very original at giving names to their dogs;
  7. The Poles like to celebrate more their name day than birthday;
  8. The largest family among all the EU countries live in Poland;
  9. The Poles are both original and very smart. 17 polish scientists have received the Nobel Prize. This number is more than in India, China, Japan and Australia. Among these 17 – 4 awards in Peace and 5 in Literature;
  10. The following interesting fact shows also that the Poles are very clever: the astronomer Hevelius, who was living from 1611 to 1687 years, created the most accurate and correct map of Moon;

 

Conclusions  

Poland is one of the most influential European country. In this country there are many attractions, most of which are located in Krakow, Warsaw, Czestochowa, Gdansk, and others. Nature in Poland is very wonderful, because 28% of Polish territory covered by forests and it is home to such rare animal as bison. Visit this country and you will have a lot of new impressions and a great time!

Poland Poland Poland



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