Turkey

Category: Resorts » International » Asia » Turkey | Author: nadia | Views: 4079 | 29-06-2011, 04:14
Turkey

Official name of country: "Republic of Turkey";

The Flag consists from: the crescent moon and a star on the  red background;

The capital of Turkey: Ankara;

The largest city: Istanbul;

Official language: Turkish;

Religion in Turkey: Islam;

Continental location: Asia and Europe;

Population: 71,5 million of persons;

Territory: 780580 km²

Currency: Turkish lira (1 $ = 1,80 TL, 1 euro = 2,47 TL);

Телефонный код: +90 +90 (Istanbul - the Europian site 212, the Asian 216) (Ankara 312);

Outgoing Code: 00 (+);

Timezone: +2, in summer UTC +3;



Готели Египта Hotels in Turkey   Туры Египта Tours in Turkey    Курорты Египта Resorts of Turkey

Другие места отдыха в Египте Other places of rest in Turkey    Рассказы туристов о Египте Stories of travelers about Turkey



 

Turkey
Flag of Turkey

Turkey
Map of Turkey

Turkey

Coat of arms of Turkey

 

Information about Turkey

Turkey is a country of sun and azure sea, beautiful nature and amazing landscapes, ancient monuments and wonderful places, friendly people and delicious cuisine. The peaceful harbors, lush gardens and golden beaches with clear water, as well as lots of cafes, restaurants and nightclubs invite numerous guests, and cheap price for good service  is attracting more and more tourists every year. For the record: Turkey belongs to the list  of  10 best tourist destinations in the world and accepts  more than 23 million tourists each year.  The 8400 km  of costline contributes to the development of water sports. The most popular summer attractions are Sailing ( Yachting), hiking, rafting . In winter Turkey attracts numerous of winter sport fans.

 

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The geographical position of Turkey

Turkey is a Mediterranean country. In the north it is washed by the Black Sea, in the North-West by Sea of Marmara, in the south - by the Mediterranean and in the west - by the Aegean (all together by 4 seas). It  borders with Greece and Bulgaria in the west, Armenia, Azerbaijan and Georgia in the north-east, and with Syria, Iraq and Iran - in the south-east.  In a natural way such neighborhood has reflected on the culture of the country . Turkey is an Islamic country with a democratic government and the west-oriented people.The country has embraced modernization and is  rapidly moving in the direction of the economic development.

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Culture and History of Turkey

The Turkish Republic is situated between Europe and Asia. Naturally, this geographical location has had a big effect on history, politics and culture of the country. Turkey was the heart of the Ottoman Empire, which had contained the most of the Middle East, North Africa and Southeast Asia. Turkey is an Eurasian country, the civilization  of which dates back to 900 BC.  Where else in the world can you see the legendary palaces, ruins of castles and battlefields, where you can still feel the spirit of the Ottoman Empire? Turkey is a country of myths and mysteries. Who does not remember from the school time - the legendary city of Troy? On the territory of modern Turkey you can touch  the huge wooden Trojan horse.

 

Interesting facts about Turkey
There are so many useful and informative facts in history and culture of Turkey, that we decided to create a special sub-section for them, which focuses on interesting facts about Turkey. You can find them in this sub section of the article.

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Where to go in Turkey

Ankara is the capital of the Turkish Republic, but it is the second largest, after Istanbul, city in Turkey. The historical center of the city is the tower of the Ak Kale ("White Castle"), surrounded by double wall. Another symbol of the city is Haji Bayram Mosque, built near the ruins of the famous temple of St. Augustine and Roma. The mausoleum of Ataturk is deeply revered by the local residents; it has the sarcophagus of the founder and hero of the Turkish Republic, Mustafa Kemal Ataturk. You can learn the history of the city and interesting facts about the first settlers of Ankara taking tour to the Museum of Anatolian Civilizations. It contains the archaeological artifacts of the Paleolithic period. The main exhibit is a wall of the museum, which age is more than eight thousand years.

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Turkey Turkey Turkey

Istanbul is the largest city in Turkey, a major tourist center, modern city with numerous mosques and monuments, which have historical significance. The only city in the world located on two continents. You can read more information about Istanbul in the article, dedicated to this city.

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Antalya is the fastest growing city, the center of resort, clean sea and many hotels are waiting for you. But "Antalya" is not only a tourist town and seaside resort in Turkey; it is also an ancient historic city of Turkey. In summer more than 2 million people (tourists) come here. The town was founded in 159 BC by order of the king of Pergamum Attalia the Second. Later Roman Empire conquered Anatolia, and then Byzantine. To the main attractions of the city belongs Yivli minaret, built by the Turks - Seljuk mosque Eski Cami, Mahmet Bey (former convent of dancing dervishes). Also we recommend you to visit the Clock Tower, which was built in the nineteenth century, and its full name is: "Clock Tower Saat Koules". Until now, the tower has been preserved almost in its original form. It is located on the square of "Kalekapysy."  Take a tour to the Hydyrlyk Tower, which was built on the rocks in the second century AD by the Romans. In ancient times it was used both as a defensive structure, and a lighthouse.

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Turkey Turkey Turkey

Alanya (or "Alagna", the ancient name of "Karakession" and "Kalonoros") - is the most popular southern and warmest sea resort town in Turkey. The main attraction of this sea resort and tourist city is the Byzantine castle of the XIII century, which is located on the top of the mountain. The fortress was built by Sultan Alladin Keykubidom in the 13th century AD. The fortress is surrounded by three lines of walls, 83 towers and 140 bastions. This is the only surviving Seljuk castle in the world (its other name "Seljuk fortress"). Inside of the fort there is the mosque of Suleiman the Magnificent, the tomb of Akshabe Sultun, the palace of Sultan Aladdin. There is a shipyard near the castle. It is interesting to walk through the old town with its picturesque streets and visit the beautiful Damlatas cave with stalactites and stalagmites. The temperature in the cave is about +22 to +23 ° C and humidity - 90 to 98% - such conditions are very good for the treatment of asthma. Also see "Pirates cave" where pirates hid kidnapped girls, "Cave of Lovers" and "Phosphoric cave".
We also recommend a walking to the most famous and popular beach "Cleopatra," which was named after the famous Egyptian Queen - Cleopatra. The name of the beach has been chosen not accidentally. The famous politician Mark Antony presented the ancient roman city of Alania to the Queen of Egypt Cleopatra. According to the sayings she dropped beautiful girls (more beautiful than she) from the steep cliff into the sea. This mountain is located in the center of Alanya surrounded from 3 sides by the Mediterranean Sea (on this mountain is located Seljuk fortress - see above). As the beach “Cleopatra” is saturated near this mountain in the city center, it has got such name.
In the vicinity of Alanya there are numerous orchards and fields. This area is quite agriculturally developed and specializes in growing variety of exotic fruits and crops. Among them: bananas, oranges, tangerines, figs and pomegranates.
From the town of Alanya you can take the ferry to Cyprus. The distance by sea from Alanya to Cyprus is relatively small - about 170 km. The trip one way takes about 3 hours and costs $ 45. To the North (Turkish Cyprus) visa is not required, but to get to the South (Greek part, and now an independent Cyprus) you need Schengen visa. From Alanya, you can also take a two-day tour to holy places in Jerusalem (Israel), which will cost about $ 300.

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Turkey Turkey Turkey
Turkey Turkey Turkey

Bursa is the first capital of the Ottoman Empire. It was founded in the second century BC. and that time it had name "Prus". Modern Bursa can be called picturesque open-air museum. This ancient city with lush gardens is one of the most beautiful in Turkey. To the sights belong the Green Mausoleum of Bursa (Yesil Turbot), the Green Mosque (Yesil Cami), the oldest mosque in the city - Orhan Gazi Jami, Ulu Jami, as well as a unique complex of mausoleums in Muradiye with graves of many Ottoman Sultans. A favorite place for tourists is the Cosa Khan, a unique silkworm market. This oldest market of the East was built in 1490, at the time when Bursa was s an important city of the "Great Silk Road".

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Turkey Turkey Turkey

Edirne is the second capital of the Ottoman Empire, which is located in the European part of Turkey near the border with Greece and Bulgaria. The city is proud of its historical monuments, among them one of the most beautiful mosques in the world "Selimiye Mosque". And in late June or early July in Edirne you can watch the annual competition in  ancient Turkish form of struggle - "Oil wrestling". Wrestlers pour olive oil on themselves and fight in such condition. This type of competition belongs to one of the oldest in the world - competition in the oil fight has been helding annually since the 14th century BC:  when Edirne was the capital of the Ottoman Empire.

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Turkey Turkey Turkey
Turkey Turkey Turkey

Izmir is the third largest city in Turkey, a wonderful place for lovers of summer vacation. Earlier, in ancient times Izmir had name "Smyrna". It is the birthplace of Homer. Modern Izmir is the largest city on the Aegean coast.  To the historical monuments which have survived belong 13 columns with beautiful capitals, Yahly mosque, caravanserai Chakaloglu Hana and Hana Kyzlaragasy, Hisar and Shadirvan Mosques. On the hill of Pagos there is the Byzantine fortress Kadifekale (velvet). In the southern part of the street Ataturk Caddesi there is  Konak Meydani with amazing view to the Gulf of Izmir. Visit the Archaeological Museum. The museum contains many interesting artifacts   from the ancient cities of Smyrna, Miletusa, Ephesus, Sardis, Tralleisa, Pergamon, and others, but the most interesting exhibits are the statue of Poseidon and Demeter, a collection of sarcophagi and a bronze statue of Demeter from Bodrum. Ataturk Caddesi is the most pedestrian street in Izmir, it runs by the beautiful harbor, the picturesque district of Konak in the old town and offers spectacular panoramic views to the bay.

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Turkey Turkey Turkey

Sinop - an ancient fortress and port city on the Black Sea.

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Turkey Turkey Turkey
Turkey Turkey Turkey

Bodrum is unique resort place. It opens the door to all lovers of beach holidays. Bodrum is surrounded by hilly area with partially populated slopes. There are lots of rocks at the picturesque bays. The History of Bodrum has more than 2,000 years. This picturesque town is home to the historian Herodotus. To the monument of antiquity belong a mausoleum, which contains a great number of priceless artifacts in history and archeology. The mausoleum is considered one of the Seven Wonders of the World, but, unfortunately, till nowadays only its remains have survived. At the entrance of the bay to Bodrum there is the castle or medieval or castle of St. Peter, now it is used as the Museum of Underwater Archaeology. In the museum you can see the unique underwater discoveries of the Mediterranean. There is also the Museum of Turkish baths in the fortress. From Bodrum you can take a trip to the Greek island of Kos, but remember that it is the Greek territory, and you can not get there without the Schengen visa.  We should also add that Bodrum is one of the most expensive resorts in Turkey.

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Turkey Turkey Turkey

Konya - the heart of the Sufi Order. In this city you can visit the tomb of Rumi.

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Gallipoli - has several memorials to the First World War.

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Turkey Turkey Turkey

Ephesus is known for its ruins of the Roman city. The exact date of its foundation  is not known. In the 7th century the city and its principal symbol the Temple of Artemis was destroyed by Cimmerian tribes. It was later reinstated, and in the 6th century it was captured by King Cyrus. During the reign of August dynasty the city had been the capital of the Roman province of Asia. Unfortunately, the world famous temple of Artemis has not preserved, you can see only its ruins, also you can see the small (1,400 seats) and a large amphitheater (24,000 seats), the temples of Hadrian, and Hestia, the gates of Hercules, a library and even a local brothel.

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Mount Nemrut - the UNESCO heritage, and here you can admire the statues of the heads of ancient gods.

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Pamukkale - means "cotton castle" in Turkish, is an amazing natural formation of limestone rocks, which is located in the southwest of Turkey, in  Denizli Province. The panorama of limestone rocks (they are called "travertine") is very similar to the snow-covered mountain, but in reality it is not. Vice versa, the white mountain limestone with white deposits of calcium have been formed as a result of prolonged activity of a set of hot geothermal sources, which flow continuously from the ground  under the big pressure. As a result of the activity of the hot springs white limestone deposits and a number of natural swimming pools with the purest water have been formed. It should be noticed that the water in pools has truly wonderful healing properties and the temperature of it does not fall below 35 degrees.
The most famous Pamukkale pool - "Cleopatra" pool. We strongly recommend you to visit it. In this natural pool in the open air you can swim even in winter - the water has a constant temperature which does not drop below 35 degrees. But this pool, unfortunately, is not free. The price of entrance ticket is $ 15. You'll lose a lot in this excursion, without swimming in Cleopatra pool. There is the ancient city Hierapolis (or "Gierapolis", "Hierapolis") on the territory of Pamukkale. Hierapolis (translated into English as "holy city") - is an ancient city, its ruins are located 17 km from the Turkish city Denizli. Current location and name of the city is "Pamukkale-Hierapolis". This ancient city is included to the programm of the Pamukkale tour. The white limestone deposits ("travertine") and the ancient city are on the same plateau. In Hierapolis you will see: 1) amphitheater (it is one of the largest remaining ancient theaters in Turkey, it could contain 15,000 spectators); 2) The ruins of the old toilets; 3) The Pool of Cleopatra - working natural swimming pool with hot mineral water (35 degrees), which has appeared at the place of the destroyed by earthquakes Roman baths; 4) Necropolis - is the largest ancient necropolis in Turkey; 5) St. Philip Martyrium  - the ruins of Martyrium (old building in honor of the died in the name of the faith  people), St. Philip - one of the Christian apostles, who died in the city of Hierapolis in 87 AD; 6) Temple of Apollo - the ruins of the Greek Apollo temple, the largest temple in the city; 7) Travertines - large lime deposits (to see more information about  them - look  the paragraph above).
Hierapolis and Pamukkale - is a very important center of tourism in Turkey, so we strongly recommend you to visit them.

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Turkey Turkey Turkey

Province of Cappadocia is one of the major tourist centers, located in central Turkey. In the national park Harem there is one of the world wonders "Valley of the Fairy Chimneys". At the area of 9572 acres bizarre rock formations from lava eruptions of three volcanoes were formed. The winds and rain over millions of years have created unique rock formations. They can be explored both from the earth and from the air on the air balloon. During hundreds years, local people have carved homes in these rocks, many of these houses are now used as hotels. A huge number of rock churches is one of the main attractions of Cappadocia. It should be noted that Cappadocia is considered the cradle of Christianity, as in these places the saints Peter and Paul lived and preached. Many Christian monks settled here, cutting into the rock monasteries.

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Turkey Turkey Turkey
Turkey Turkey Turkey

Bergen - in ancient times known as Pergamum, one of the most famous cities of antiquity. Center of the ancient heritage is the Acropolis, surrounded by the ruins of the ancient library of the 2nd century, a theater for 10,000 spectators, the Corinthian temple of Trajan (117-118 a. N. AD), the temple of Dionysus and the ruins of the huge marble altar of Zeus, which belong to the Seven Wonders of the World. Not far from the Acropolis there are  ancient ruins of the famous monument - a temple Asklepion, the god of healing and health Asclepius.

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Ilion (Troy ruins) - the ruins of the legendary city, which was glorified in the poem "Iliad" by Homer. The town located on the hills around Hizarlyk on the northwest coast of the country. Pier, the city wall of Troy, the wall of the Roman period and the Temple of Athena are partially preserved.

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Turkey Turkey Turkey

Demre is small town near Antalya (in the province, "Antalya"). The ruins of the ancient capital of Lycia - Myra are located not far from the city. Holy Nicholas lived in this city. Near the cathedral, in which he served, was built the Church of St. Nicholas, now it is very popular place among the Christian pilgrimage. In European folklore and legend, St. Nicholas is known as Santa Claus.

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Kemer is a tourist town. Numerous hotels, clean beaches welcome all vacationers. In the northern part of Kemer there is Yoryuk Park - «the ethnographic exhibition" dedicated to the history and traditions of Turkish people. In the vicinity of Kemer, you can visit the ruins of the ancient city of Phaselis, where you can see the remains of the harbor walls, an amphitheater, acropolis and the ruins of aqueducts, marketplaces and baths. According to legend, Alexander of Macedon, was buried somewhere here.

Turkey Turkey Turkey
Turkey Turkey Turkey

Marmaris is considered the most beautiful city on the southwestern coast of Turkey. It is located at the cozy bay with three islands, surrounded by sandy beaches and pine forests at the confluence of the Aegean and Mediterranean seas. It should be noted that Marmaris is the most e ecological cleanest resort in Turkey. The city, built around the Ottoman fortress of the 2nd century. In Marmaris it is interesting to visit the caravanserai and ancient castle - a stronghold of the Knights Hospitallers. Take a tour to Pammukale, which is located a few hours from here.  From Marmaris you can take a ferry to the island of Rhodes. Time travel one way is 45 minutes and the price - 40 euros. But keep in mind that the island of Rhodes belongs to Greece and it is impossible to get there without Schengen visa.

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Turkey Turkey Turkey

Other photos of Turkey:

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Turkey Turkey Turkey
Turkey Turkey Turkey

 

What to visit in Turkey

1) Turkish  Bath -  the Turkish people call it "Hammam". Feature of this bath it is not very high temperature, which ranges from 30 - 55 degrees.
2) The Turkish restaurant where you can enjoy the real  Turkish cuisine.
3) The beach (swimming pool) - the beach season in Turkey is quite long, although it  depends on the location of the resort town where you relax, but generally summer beach season lasts from early April until late October.
  

Turkish Cuisine Turkish cuisine has a very long tradition.
The main ingredients of the turkish cuisine are cereals, mainly rice and wheat, as well as an abundance of vegetables. Aromatic spices give  a unique flavor and taste to the food. Speaking about Turkish cuisine, firstly we should mention the "kebab", which is the national dish of Turkey, but it's popularity has  gone out of its borders.
Disposition of the seas has also reflected on the Turkish cuisine.
The Turks are masters at preparing fish dishes. For them cooking is a kind of art. Turks often associate names of the dishes with the beauty and kindness. You can notice this buying the turkish sweets: the girl’s  lips,  the Sultan’s palace, a nightingale's nest, and so on. It was the Turks who gave us such desserts like halva and "delight".

 

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Tea, coffee:
Tea and coffee in Turkey is an integral part of its tradition. Coffee is  prepared on  heated sand, of course, such cooking takes longer than on the stove, but the taste is not comparible. Turks traditionally drink it without sugar.
Turkey belongs to the  most  tea-drinking nation -  2.5 kilograms of tea for one person per year.  The question-"Would you like some tea?"  is the second after the question: "How are you ?". Turkish tea is usually brewed with two dummies that are on each other . Traditionall Turks drink tea from small glasses. Also  try fruity tea. The most famous is apple tea. They drink it cold. 

 

What to buy in Turkey

- Leather-clothing ( it is of good quality and cheaper than in other countries;
- Carpets and kilims (handmade kilims and carpets are  famous in the world);
- Silk;
- Turkish Delight;
- Olive soap;
- Hookah (nargile) - Turkish Hookah is one of the best in the world. We recommend a hookah, which costs not less than 50$.

 

Interesting facts about Turkey 1. There are 33 400 archaeological and 440,000 historical places of interest in Turkey.

2. In Turkey, there was the legendary Troy, and lived a tribe of Amazons.  Anatolia was home for the kings of Croesus and Midas, the historian Herodotus, the philosopher Thales, St. Paul, St. Nicholas, now known as Santa Claus.

3. Istanbul - the only city in the world, which is situated on two continents: Europe and Asia. During its thousand years history Istanbul was the capital of three great empires - Roman, Byzantine and Ottoman.

4. Alexander of Macedon cut the Gordian knot near Ankara.

5. In Turkey, there are two of the Seven Wonders of the World - the Temple of Artemis at Ephesus and the Mausoleum at Gelikarnase.

6. Many archaeologists say that Noah's Ark landed on Mount Ararat in eastern Turkey.

7. 70% of all hazelnuts in the world are produced in Turkey.

8. Unusual cats live near Salt Lake in Van, they love swimming, fishing and playing in snow.

9. The Holy Virgin Mary spent in Turkey last years of her life. In some provinces the native language of Jesus Christ is still spoken.

10. The Turks were first to bring tulips to Holland, and still deliver the flowers to Europe.

11. The Kingdom of Pergamum became famous thanks to invention of parchment.

12. All seven churches mentioned in Revelation are in Anatolia: Ephesus, Smyrna, Pergamum, Sardis, Philadelphia, Laodicea and Tiatira.

13. The most valuable carpet in the world is stored in the Museum of Mevlana. 1 cm square has 144 nodules.

14. Turkey - the only Muslim country where religion is completely separated from the state.

15. In the church of Hagia Sophia in Istanbul there is  lateral miraculous column. It is called "sweating" .It differs from the other 106 columns that resembles the color of melted milk and getting wet when somebody touches it. It is believed that the "sweating column" helps in healing various diseases.

16. The cross on which Jesus Christ was crucified, is located now in the church of St. George in Istanbul.

17. In Antioch there is the oldest church in the world, it was  built by the Holy Apostle Peter.

18. The first clay tablets, which had been used for communication -  were found in Anatolia.

19. The first Neolithic paintings were found on artificial walls in Chatale.

20. Flora of Turkey is impressive for its beauty and diversity, it is represented by more than 9,000 species of plants.

21. Many people know that the Netherlands is  the largest exporter of tulips in the world, but few people know that Turkey  presented tulips to Dutch  as a gift in the 16th century. Since that time has begun the "Tulip Fever" in the Netherlands.

 

Conclusions

Turkey is a very rich  on national traditions, history and culture. Turkey has a very beautiful nature, which consists of mountains, forests, steppes, 4 seas that wash the country (the Black Sea, the Aegean Sea, the Mediterranean Sea and the Sea of Marmara). In the country dominates  subtropical climate  which allows to swim in sea and take sun-bathes more than six months  a year. The climate has several features. In the north it is a  mixture between the  temperate maritime and the wet mountain-continental climate. In the east-south  dominates  dry tropical climate. Winters are cold  and summers are hot.


It should be noticed that the hotel service is of high level  in Turkey. For comparison, the hotels in Turkey are of better quality and service than, for example, in Egypt. Often, Turkish 3-stars hotels are equil to the 4-stars hotels in Egypt. As a rule staff in hotels and restaurants  can speak English and Russian.


Turkey is one of the most democratic Muslim country. It is ruled by  the president and parliament. It is situated on two continents: Asia and Europe. Thet’s why modern Turkey is considered to be an europian country. Nowadays it is applying for the EU membership. In modern Turkey you can find lots of Europian traditions and customs. Turkey is also actively involved in sports and cultural events in Europe, such as the Eurovision Song Contest, UEFA Champions League and UEFA League of Europe, as well as other cultural and sporting events of the Old World.

 

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