China

Category: Resorts » International » Asia » China | Author: biker | Views: 3798 | 27-11-2011, 23:39
China

Official name of China: The Peoples Republic of China ("PRC");

Capital of China: Beijing ("Peking");

Area of China: 9640821 sq. km. (6.5% of the Earth);

Location: in Eastern Asia;

Climate of China: moderately continental, subtropical and tropical;

Population of China: 1.3 billion people (the largest on the planet);

The biggest cities: Shanghai, Beijing, Guangzhou;

Ethnic groups: Chinese, and only 7% of other nationalities;

Language of China: Chinese;

Religion in China: the most of Chinese people are atheists. But there are practices of Confucianism, Taoism, Buddhism, Lamaism, Catholicism and Protestantism;

Currency of China: Yuan (CNY, code 156), the Hong Kong dollar (in Hong Kong); 

Internet domain of China: cn ;

Phone code of China: +86 (as well as +8, +10); 

Local time: UTC +8.

 

 

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China

Flag of China 

China

Map of China 

China

Coat of arms of China

 

Information about China

China is the Eastern fairy-tale. Its unique culture, which has been conquering the world, (for example the wee-known tea ceremony); the monuments of ancient civilizations and beautiful nature are hallmarks of China. In modern China (in The Peoples Republic of China - "PRC") ruins of ancient civilization and big metropolis live side by side. Rice fields, as they used to be centuries ago, are located around the modern cities with skyscrapers.

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The geographical position of China 

China is a country in East Asia. It has the highest population and the third area, after Russia and Canada. China has land borders with Russia, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan, Afghanistan, India, Nepal, Bhutan, Laos, Vietnam, North Korea, Mongolia and Myanmar. It is washed by the Yellow, Bohai, East China and South China Seas. It has also more than 3400 islands.
China's topography is very diverse. The East and South of China is washed by the Pacific Ocean and has a coastline of 18 000 km. There are deserts in the West and endless Mongolian steppes in the North. More than two-thirds of the territory is mountainous. Hence the phenomenon of over-population - 80% of China's population lives on 20% of the territory along the coast. The most famous mountain ranges: the Himalayas, Khingan, Kunlun and Tien Shan. The Tibetan Plateau has the highest peaks, including Mount Everest (8,848 meters). There are two large rivers on the territory of China: the Yellow River (or "Huang He" - on its delta the ancient Chinese civilization was born) and the Yangtze, which is also called as "Long river". 

 

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Photos of China

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The climate of China 

The most territory of China has continental climate (with hot summers and cold winters), the southern part has subtropical and tropical. The average temperature in the North is -7 C in winter and 22 C in summer, in the South - 6 C in winter and 25 C in summer. There are typhoons in winter and autumn in the South. The best time to travel - late spring or early autumn (September-October), to the South - in November - December.

 

Flora and fauna of China 

Flora of China is very diverse: tropical forests in the South, the desert and steppe in the north-west, the taiga forests near the border with Russia, mangrove trees along the coast of the South China Sea. Widespread plants in China are: azalea, rhododendron, lotus, magnolia, maple, birch, poplar and spruce. One of the most common plants is the bamboo. There are more than 300 species of bamboo, and they take about 3% of the whole territory of the Chinese forests. Bamboo forests dominate in the subtropical zone.
The fauna of China is also amazing and diverse. In the mountains you can find antelopes, wild yaks and sheep. The northeastern part of China is inhabited by reindeer, American elks, bears, sables and Manchurian tigers. Taiga, the province Heylutszen, is home to brown bears, moose and lynx. These regions are also inhabited by ducks, cranes, herons and swans. Good places for bird watching are «Zhalong Nature Reserve» in Heilongjiang and "Maipo Marsh" in Hong Kong. Tropical south is home to parrots, hornbills, night lemur, gibbon, Indochinese tiger and wild Indian elephants. The rare wild animals include alligators in the central and eastern parts of China, the giant salamander in the West and the pink dolphins. Pandas live in protected areas, "Sichuan".


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History of China 

Archaeological researches show that the first people lived on the territory more than one million years ago. Some scientists say that the Shang Dynasty was the first dynasty in Chinese history. It ruled in the 16th century BC. Information about the Shang Dynasty has been preserved in the form of entries on the bones and skulls of animals. Other scientists say that the history of the country begins with the  Xia dynasty; unfortunately, there is no any archaeological or documentary evidence to support this fact. In 221 BC. Emperor Qin Shi Huang created an empire of Qin.  Feudal society with the imperial dynasties had been existing until the 19th century. Zinn was the last ruling dynasty in China. In 1912, as a result of the Xinhai Revolution, the first president Yuan Shikai came to power. He was a dictator. In 1921 Chinese Communist Party was organized. In 1949 the People's Republic of China ("PRC") was announced. The most famous ruler of China is Mao Zedong. After his death in 1978, a new team of politicians has been held a series of economic reforms. Thanks to these reforms, China has received the status of a modern country with fast developing economy.

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Chinese Culture

China is home to one of the oldest civilizations on Earth. Also, it is assumed that China is the only region where the physical type of the population has not changed during five thousand years. China has 5000 history of philosophical, artistic and political development. Despite the regional differences, the totality in language, religious and ethical views are reflected in Chinese culture; within the Chinese culture the world-famous philosophical and religious directions, as Taoism and Confucianism were created. Confucianism was the official ideology during the history of the Imperial period in China; Confucian knowledge was the main criterion for joining the imperial bureaucracy in China.
Despite the fact that the current Chinese government supports atheism, the most common religions in China are Confucianism, Taoism, Buddhism and Lamaism. Nowadays Christianity (in form of Catholicism and Protestantism) are spreading over the country.

As mentioned above, Chinese culture was born at very ancient time. It is rich in its material and spiritual values, and a huge resilience. In spite of numerous rebellions, destruction and wars it has not just survived, but quite the opposite - influenced the culture of neighboring Asian countries.
In the medieval period, Chinese culture had a great influence on the formation and development of the culture of many neighboring peoples who inhabited the vast areas of Indo-China, Mongolia, Tibet, Korea and Japan.
Speaking about Chinese culture in the modern international culture we should note that today’s fashionable and popular "Feng shui" was originated from China. This knowledge is based on the properties of the space and its affection for the life of man. Every room in feng shui can be divided into 9 squares, each of which will be "responsible" for any area of our lives.
For example, if you clean, and put a wooden table with shiny surface into the the angle of wealth or power (located on the left side of the entrance), then your productivity will increase by several times. And right from the entrance to the room is the "Zone of sympathy," or angle of assistants.

The symbols of Chinese culture are considered to be: The Chinese dragon, yin and yang (yin and yang), Chinese lion and Chinese hieroglyphs (which are also used nowadays). Speaking of culture we should mention the holidays in China. The most common and important festivals in China are Spring Festival, the festival "Yuansyao" holiday "Duane" holiday "Winging" festival "Chung Yuen" holiday "Zhongqiu" and some others.
In addition to the state holidays, many ethnic minorities of China have their traditional festivals. For example: the Mongols - the holiday "Nadom"; in Datze - a holidsay of "Water", in Yiyang - holiday "Torch", in Yaotyan - holiday "Dan", in Baits - "March Bazaar", in Zhuang – song competition , Tibetans celebrate a special holiday  "the Tibetan New Year," as well as a harvest festival, "Wang", in Mayodan - celebrate the "Tyaohua".
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Where to go in China
- Beijing - the capital of China. This is a modern metropolis with a population of about 11 million people. The main attraction is the former imperial residence - Forbidden City (Palace). It got its name because only the emperor and his family had been living here for 500 years. It is the largest palace complex in the world and has an area of 720,000 square meters with 9999 rooms. The palace is surrounded by a wall and a moat.
In the southern part of Beijing, visit Temple of Heaven - Tiantan. The roofs of this building are covered with blue tiles, which merge with the sky. It has more than 500 years of history. In this palace the emperor prayed for good harvest. On campus there is a round altar, where the emperor was standing during the ceremonies of sacrifice.
Of course, you should visit the Great Wall, 60 km from Beijing, this part is called Badaling.
- Hong Kong - the "the city of life", it seems that this city does not sleep at all. Musicians, artists, theatrical and operatic bodies, designers, and athletes come here from the entire World.
- Tibet - the highest mountain plateau, also called "the Roof of the World." Being in Tibet, visit the Palace of Potap , thirteen-storied-building, made from stone and wood. Lhasa is located at an altitude of 3658 meters and is the administrative center of Tibet. Here you will find monasteries and palaces, hotels, cozy restaurants and bazaars.
- Shanghai is the largest industrial and commercial center of China. Visit the market area in the north-eastern part. More than  hundred shops offer a variety of souvenirs, paintings, antiques, bamboo and much more at very good prices.
- The island of Hainan. This is the southern point of China. Hainan is the second largest in the world in clean air (after Havana in Cuba). The average temperature in summer is 36 C, and in winter - 21 C.

The main tourist hotels are concentrated in a world-class resorts:
 1) The Bay "Yalong Bay";
 2) The Bay "Dadonghai" (Great East Sea);
 3) The Bay "Sanya Bay";

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What to see in China 

- The Mausoleum of Emperor Qin Shi Huang and the "Terracotta Army" (Terracota Warriors) in Xi'an, Shaanxi Province. The mausoleum was built in 221 - 259 years. BC. The area of the palace is 56.25 sq. km.. and there are more than 400 graves there. The main attraction of the complex is the terracotta army. In  three cameras you can see 7400 figures of soldiers and horses made in a full-length and have no similar faces.
- Mogao Grottoes in Denhuang, Gansu Province. The complex consists of caves Mogae, the Cave of thousand Buddhas  and Yulin Caves. In total, there are 492 caves with 45,000 square meters. km. of murals. It has also more than 6,000 sculptures.
- The mountain resort and the temples of Chengde in Hebei Province. This palace was the summer residence of the emperors of dynasty Zinn . The complex was built in 1703-1793 and consists of 110 buildings, 10 miles of the palace walls and the imperial garden.  There is a statue of thousand eyed and thousand handed Buddha next to the temple complex. Its height is   23 m and weight 110 tons. This is the highest and the biggest statue in the world.
- Mansion, Temple and Cemetery of Confucius in Qufu, Shandong Province.
- The ancient architectural complex on Mount Wudang (Wudan Mountain), Hubei Province. The complex includes eight palaces, two Taoist temples, 36 monasteries, 72 rock temples, 39 bridges, 12 pavilions and 10 churches, where people worship the souls of dead ancestors.
-  The Potala Palace in Tibet. It is situated at an altitude of 3700 meters above sea level and is the highest palace in the world (it has 13 floors and its height is 115 meters).
- Beautiful countryside of Lushan Mountain, Jiangxi Province. One of the most beautiful mountains in China, Admire the beautiful cascading waterfalls and walk the path of Flowers.
- The ancient city of Lijiang. IT is the city, where the representatives of Chinese ethnic population, live. Here you can feel very strong influence of their culture and traditions. They believe in magic and very strong in folk medicine.
- Classical Gardens of Suzhou (Suzhou), Jiangsu Province. Suzhou has called the Venice of the East-an ancient city on the water, which is famous for its gardens. The oldest garden is the Pavilion of blue waves, which consists of stones, bamboo and rolling hills. In one of the halls you can see pictures of 500 famous people, carved out of wood. Lion caves got its name because of a variety of stones in the shape of  lion. Garden of the humble administrator is the largest in the city. It has many lakes, which are surrounded by pavilions.
- Various sculptures Datszu (Dazu Stone Carvings) in Chongxing. There are more than 100,000 sculptures, mostly with an image of Buddha.
- Taishan Mountain, Shandong Province. It is one of the sacred mountains. It is believed that the ancient Chinese civilization lived at this place. There are more than 72 temples on the mountain built by different emperors. Landscape is very fascinating: waterfalls, rocks, pines and cypresses. Take a walk along the "path to heaven," which rises to 400 m.
- Huangshan Mountain, Anhui Province. According to the legend, Emperor Syuanyuan did here special exercises to achieve immortality. It has 36 large and 36 small peaks and three main peaks - The lotus flower, and the brightest star and Qaeda. The Mountain is also called the natural zoo and botanical garden.  There are1452 species of plants and 552 species of animals there.
- Emei Mountain and Grant Buddha of Leshan, Sichuan Province. It is one of the sacred mountains in China; the height of its peak reaches 3099 meters. The mountain has many attractions and diversity of flora and fauna. The famous temple is a bronze statue of Buddha Samantabadra , riding on a white elephant with six tusks.  Its height is7.3 meters and weight is 62 tons.
- Wulingyuan Scenic Area, Hunan Province. It is very beautiful and picturesque place, the natural zoo, botanical and geological gardens. There are beautiful mountains, caves, mountain springs and lush forests there. There is also a mountain top   Kunlun – which is considered to be the residence of gods.
Ravine Scenic Area, Sichuan Province. The territory is famous for snowy peaks, waterfalls and lush forests. There is the widest waterfall mountain of China - Nozhilan (its width is 320 m.). If you are lucky, you can meet panda on this territory.
- The Great Wall of China is the longest wall in the world and it was built in the 3rd century BC. The length of the wall (8851.8 kilometers) impresses everyone. The Great Wall is a symbol of Chinese power. The best way to watch the Great Wall is visiting its Section "Badaling" near Beijing.

 

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What to do in China  - Excursions. China is rich in cultural and natural attractions. The most visited tourist cities are Beijing, Xi'an, Tianjin and Shenyang. We recommend you to visit the natural attractions of Mount Tianshan and the Mogao grottoes. Of course watch the man-made wonder - "Great Wall".
- Shopping. China - is an excellent place for shopping. Beijing's most famous shopping streets are Tsyanmen, Sidan and Duns.
- Ecotourism. China has many opportunities for ecotourism. There is a large number of protected areas and forest parks there. On the island of Hainan there are tropic rainforests. To the north-east of Sanya, on the island Nanvan there is the natural reserve of monkeys (here there are more than 2,000 species of monkeys).
- Medical tourism. China is famous for its traditional medicine, which has a long history. The centers of traditional medicine can be found throughout the country, but the most popular are the clinics in Beijing and Dalian.
- Rafting. Rafting on the Yellow River is very developed. During the trip you can get acquainted with the traditions and customs of the local population, as well as ancient culture and history of Yellow River valley.
- Beach vacation. Hainan Island is the most southern point of the country and the best place for  beach holiday. Hainan is the second largest in the world in clean air (after Havana, Cuba). The average summer temperature is 36 C, and winter - 21 C.
The beaches of the island are designed for both passive and active recreation (snorkeling, scuba diving, windsurfing, water skiing and boat).
- Diving and surfing. The best place for diving is the island of Hainan. During the diving you will discover the unique world of colorful corals, tropical fish, underwater caves and shipwrecks. To the best areas for surfing belong Sanya, the beach Da Mei Sha, Maoming, island Shangchuan and Xi Chong.
 

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Cousine of China ("Chinese Food") 

 

Chinese food is not just about filling the stomach, but it the important ritual. In ancient China, the order of serving dishes, tableware, clothing, servants, and music, sounding during meals were strictly selected. Modern Chinese eat slowly, not in a hurry. The uniqueness of Chinese cuisine is manifested in unique ways of cooking, lots of spices and unusual combination of ingredients. The main ingredients in Chinese cuisine are rice, vegetables and soy. Vegetables in Chinese cuisine play an important role; they can be served with various dishes. Vegetables are often pickled or salted in soy sauce. Boiled young leaves of the bamboo are especially popular in China.
Fish is one of the favorite dishes of the Chinese people. Perch, flounder and other seafood (shrimp, crab, clams, octopus and oysters) are the most used in Chinese cuisine.
Rice is the main food in China. Rice cultivation in China has a long history. Rice has a wide range of using: for baking cakes, making sauces, as well as alcoholic beverages. Meal begins and ends with tea. Tea drinking is an important ritual. It is brewed in porcelain teapots and drinking very hot without sugar.

It is impossible to imagine a national Chinese food without the traditional chopsticks! Chopsticks in China called "Kuaytszy." They can be made from different materials: wood, plastic and bone. It is not difficult to use them. Practice few times and everything will be alright.

 

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What to buy in China

- Chopsticks, lacquer boxes, vases, statues of the Buddha - this are the most traditional Chinese souvenirs.
- Beautiful porcelain.
- Tea (especially famous are "Hangzhou" and "Suzhou"), herbal and vitamin drinks.
- Silk (China is very famous for it). Top quality silk products are sold in Beijing in silk factories or on market.
- Coats and electronic engineering products. Top quality electronics you can buy in Hong Kong. Many tourists also buy precious stones, ceramics and leather goods.
Buying products on the market - always bargain, in this way you can reduce the price in 5 - 10 times. In the shops and department stores with fixed prices, bargaining is not acceptable.

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Interesting facts about China 

- The Great Wall of China is also known as the "Wall of Ten Thousand Lees", one  Lee is 500 meters. The Great Wall can be seen by the human eye from space.
- Chinese civilization has a history of 4000 years and it is the oldest living civilization on Earth.
- China is one of the largest producers of cotton and silk production. It has been playing an important part in the Chinese economy for thousands of years.
- Paper, the compass, gunpowder and printing press are considered to be four great inventions of China. The Chinese also invented the wheel and the first calendar.
- There are 3240 television channels and 250 FM channels in China.
- Chinese traditional greeting ("Cigoli ma" or "No chifan la ma") is translated into English as «have you eaten?"
- 50000 cigarettes are smoked every second in China.
- China has more pigs than in 43 other countries which produce pork together.

- The oldest and longest canal in the world is "The Beijing-Hangzhou" channel, its total length 1801 km. Its construction dates from the 5th century BC.
- 200 million people in China live on less than a dollar a day.

 

Conclusions 

China is located in Central and Eastern Asia. The official name of the country: "The People's Republic of China" - an abbreviation "PRC". Nowadays it is one of the largest and fastest growing countries in the world. Many tourists are attracted by its long history and unique culture. It can boast the rich historical and cultural heritage, the modern metropolis, and natural attractions, many national parks and reserves. The Great Wall of China is very popular among tourists. It is a symbol of China and is associated with many legends and myths about the Chinese people. Excursion, beach, shopping and medicine tourism is developed in China.

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Tags: China, PRC, The Peoples Republic of China


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